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4G/5G Network Infrastructure

In contrast to current networks, the 5G design has small cell and macrocell base stations with edge computing capabilities.
The tower structures are called macrocells when they cover a wide geographic area. 5G networks include network activities that typically take place on dedicated hardware, which are run as software in the network. A majority of carriers will be using existing 4G LTE RANs together with the installation of specific extra antennas up till 5G networks achieve their maximum capacity and become self-sufficient. By offering improved services throughout the construction of the new physical infrastructure, carriers may allow themselves to transition from 4G to 5G.
5G networks have two options for their infrastructure: non-standalone (NSA) and standalone. An existing 4G LTE network is supported by new technologies, including 5G New Radio (NR).
LTE and cloud-native core are not required for standalone infrastructure, including a 5G network that is not reliant on LTE. As networks move to standalone infrastructures, carriers are expected to travel via an NSA infrastructure first. 5G-like experiences may be provided by carriers, who are preparing to install the required equipment to support a 5G network with an NSA strategy.
Base stations planned for 5G networks are compact, with a small footprint, and grouped in highly populated areas to allow for a seamless connection.
With the arrival of 5G networks, data can be sent more rapidly via millimeter waves (mmWave), but only within a very restricted range. Although smaller cell antennas can transmit and receive radio waves in the higher band, they are often not used in this capacity because of their cost. More users may connect to the network simultaneously while maintaining a high level of sector throughput, and multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) antennas are extensively used. Using 5G wireless mobile networks with a large number of underground fiber networks allows small cells.
At locations with lower population density, mixed infrastructure, and decreased network congestion, the 5G RAN element is optimal. The lower-band radio frequencies used for 5G RAN operate in the sub-6 GHz frequency range and therefore carried much less data but may cover a larger geographic area.